The permutative/ الْبَدَلُ
The permutative structure is of two parts. The first of which is called: المبدل منه. It is the part being replaced. The second part is called: بدل. It is the part replacing the first one.
Ex.الإمامُ مالِكٌ أحد الأئمة الأربعة
الإمامُ is the noun being substituted/permutated, مالِكٌ is the noun replacing it.
The permutative follows the word it changes in all of its inflections
Ex. جاء الأستاذُ خالدٌ / زرت الأستاذَ خالدًا/ مررت بالأستاذِ خالدٍ
Khalid, the teacher, arrived.
I visited Khalid, the teacher.
I went by Khalid, the teacher.
The permutative is of four types:
- The complete change of one thing for another
جاء زيدٌ أخوك
Zaid, your brother, came.
- The change of a part for a whole
أكلت الرغيفَ نصفَه
I ate the loaf of bread, I mean, a third of it.
- The change of the content for the containing
نَفَعَنِي زَيْدٌ عِلْمُهُ
Zaid (I mean) his erudition benefited me
- The change for a mistake
رَأَيْتُ زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ
I saw zaid (I mean) the horse
In the last case, a word mistakenly took the place of another one.